Students Diversity and Teaching Practices Essay Teaching practice is the practical aspect of teacher training and it is an assortment of factual and dramatic characteristics. During the teaching practice student teachers find an opportunity to use the acquired knowledge, especially in the areas of psychology, teaching methods, teaching principles and teaching techniques. During teaching practice student teachers are like apprentices to acquire skills. Teaching practice is a valuable opportunity, where student teachers are in a position to increase their knowledge, do experiments on the basis of acquired knowledge and to solve the problems related to teaching. Student teachers which are on teaching practice, if they are aware about their lacking experience and need of more learning, as well as willing to learn and gain, then they can learn practically much more from experienced teachers and teacher educators. During teaching practice, it is not only that they have opportunity of teaching but they also have the opportunity to observe inside and outside of the classroom. In this connection data was collected from 650 student/prospective teachers who have completed their teaching practice and it was found that in Pakistan teaching practice is not taken seriously and many interesting findings were found in this regard. Key Words: teaching practice, problems, issues, Pakistan Introduction Practice teaching occupies a key position in the programme of teacher education. It is a culminating experience in teacher preparation. It provides opportunity to beginning teachers to become socialized into the profession (Furlong et. al, 1988). Performance during practice teaching provides some basis for predicting the future success of the teacher. Outgoing popularity and centrality of practice teaching is an important contributing factor towards the quality of teacher education programme. During practice teaching working with students in schools provides a high degree of emotional involvement mostly of a 1Federal 2 College of Education H-9, Islamabad, Pakisatn,[emailprotected] com G C University, Faisalabad,Pakistan 3The niversity of Gujrat, Pakistan 4Federal College of Education H-9, Islamabad, Pakisatn Â© 2010 International Online Journal of Educational Sciences ISSN: 1309-2707 Aijaz Ahmed Gujjar, Bushra Naoreen Saifullah SAIFI Muhammad Jamil Bajwa positive nature. Student teachers feel themselves grow through experience and they begin to link to a culture of teaching. During practice teaching, they feel engaged, challenged and even empowered (Trowbridge and Bybee, 1994; sharafuddin, and Allison, 1969). Definitions of Teaching Practice A number of terms such as the practice teaching, student teaching, teaching practice, field studies, infield experience, school based experience or internship are used to refer to this activity (Taneja, 2000). The term practice teaching embraces all the learning experiences of student teachers in schools (Ashraf, 1999). The term practice teaching has three major connotations: the practicing of teaching skills and acquisition of the role of a teacher; the whole range of experiences that students go through in schools; and the practical aspects of the course as distinct from theoretical studies (Stones and Morris, 1977). Teaching practice is the name of the preparation of student teachers for teaching by practical training. It is the practical use of teaching methods, teaching strategies, teaching principles, teaching techniques and practical training and practice / exercise of different activities of daily school life. Objectives of Practice Teaching According to Akbar (2002) Following are the objectives of practice teaching: 1. To provide the prospective teachers with an opportunity of establishing an appropriate teacher pupil relationship. 2. To provide an opportunity for evaluating the student potential as a teacher and suitability for the teaching profession. 3. To develop personal relationship with others: administrators, teachers, parents and students. 4. To provide the future teacher with practical experience in school to overcome the problems of discipline and enable him / her to develop method of control. 340 International Online Journal of Educational Sciences, 2010, 2(2), 339-361 5. To provide with an opportunity to put theories into practice and to develop a deeper understanding of educational principles and their implication for learning. 6. To enable the student teachers effectively to plan and prepare lessons. . To develop skill in the use of fundamental procedures, techniques and methods of teaching. 8. To develop desirable professional interests, attitudes and ideas relative to teaching profession. 9. To enable student teachers to acquire desirable characteristics / traits of a teacher and to display appropriate behaviour. 10. To provide student teachers with an opportunity to have teaching evaluated and to gain from the benefits of constructive criticism. 11. To provide an opportunity for self evaluation and to discover own strengths and weaknesses. 12. To develop skills in future teachers related to teaching like fluent speaking, meaningful reading, using blackboard and other teaching material. 13. To provide an opportunity to liaison with school environment, its functioning and with community and its resources. 14. To provide for the exchange of ideas and methods between practicing school and teacher training institution, by teacher training institutionsâ€™ staff and students, perceiving new ideas material and equipment in use in practicing schools and introducing new ideas, material and equipments into the school. Stages in teaching practice Following are the stages in teaching practice 341 Aijaz Ahmed Gujjar, Bushra Naoreen Saifullah SAIFI Muhammad Jamil Bajwa Primary Stage It is necessary to make a trip of student teachers to that particular school, where they are going for practice teaching. The main aim of this tour is to see the concerned head teacher, class teachers and school staff in order to acquire information about school and its environment. Student teachers must observe the teaching methods of school, methods of concerned class teacher, copies or notebooks of the students and their usual routine. On return from the tour student teachers must have the details about scheme of studies, age of the students, strength of the class, abilities and specific problems of the students, timing of the school, textbooks and teaching aids. Preparation of Lesson For the preparation of lesson student teachers must know the subject, the relevant books and audio visual aids which he / she is going to teach. Well prepared lecture gives confidence to the teacher in the class. Student teachers and supervisor can reform the teaching learning process after its evaluation. Qualities of a Good Lesson A good lesson has the following qualities: I. II. III. IV. V. VI. VII. Lesson planning should be in complete detail. Lesson should be interesting. Effective and timely use of teaching methods and teaching aids. Student should be ready for learning. Students should be involved practically in teaching learning process. Lesson should be taught in professional and friendly environment. All students should be given same attention by keeping in view their individual differences. 342 International Online Journal of Educational Sciences, 2010, 2(2), 339-361 Teaching in Classroom The stage of teaching in the classroom is known as practice teaching. Student teachers while teaching in the classroom passes through different steps of his / her teaching (Introduction, presentation, recapitulation) and concerned teacher / supervisor assesses / observes his / her lesson. Evaluation of Teaching Practice In order to evaluate the teaching practice supervisor observes the student teacher while teaching in the classroom. Supervisor evaluates / observes the punctuality, lesson planning, teaching methods, use of audio visual aids, adequacy of audio visual aids, pitch of voice, dress, start and end of lesson, interest of the students, discipline of class, use of black / white board, studentsâ€™ notebooks and objectives of the lesson. Participation in other Routine Works of School Teaching in classroom is not the only objective of teaching practice, but also to provide training in all activities which student teachers are going to perform in future during their job as a professional teachers. For this purpose they have to spend whole day in school as teacher. They have to participate in all the activities of school e. g. preparation of timetable, preparation and maintenance of different registers, evaluation of class work and home work, arrangement of tutorial groups, sports / games, morning assembly, co-curricular activities, duty during recess, duty as day master, duty before and after school timing, decoration of classroom, preparation and maintenance of attendance board, news board, information board, look after and arrangements of A V aids room, home economics room, science laboratories and library. How to deal with studentsâ€™ parents, officers of the school, school employees and guests are also the part of teaching practice. Duties as invigilators, preparation of question papers for examinations, evaluation of answer scripts and compilation of results is also part of teaching practice. 343 Aijaz Ahmed Gujjar, Bushra Naoreen Saifullah SAIFI Muhammad Jamil Bajwa Role of Supervisor in Teaching Practice Supervisorâ€™s duty is not only to evaluate the lessons of teaching practice, but by using his/her all the abilities to make this experience (All the stages of teaching practice) result oriented. He/she should have got all the activities planned before hand. He/she should have meeting and conversion with teacher educators, experienced teachers of the institution, educationists, concerned school head teachers and other teachers. Introductory lectures should be arranged before the departure of student teachers to the practicing schools in order to aware the student teachers about the preparation of lesson plans and other assigned activities. During teaching practice it is the duty of supervisors to supervise their lessons, other assigned activities, guidance and counselling as well as provide the student teachers with feed back and to enable them so that they can criticize and reform themselves. During the teaching practice student teachers should not be criticized in front of the practicing school staff and students. If there is a need then all the student teachers should be gathered and should be scolded and warned without nominating and asking the name. Supervisorsâ€™ role is to prepare teachers for future, therefore he / she should act as a facilitator. Teaching Practice in Pakistan A variety of teacher training courses are being offered in Pakistan. In all the programmes teaching practice is compulsory component except M. Ed (Master of Education). In true spirit we can produce good teachers through this activity, but the procedure adopted in Pakistan is just to pass / kill the time. Teaching practice duration is very short; it is about 4 to 8 weeks or teaching of 60 to 75 lessons. During teaching practice student teachers are bound to the classrooms for teaching. They are not trained for the other activities performed in schools. Therefore, effective learning could not take place. Student teachers are bound to use easy principles and methods of teaching. They are just being taught how to start the lesson, how to control the class, how to keep an eye over the students while writing on the black / white board. 344 International Online Journal of Educational Sciences, 2010, 2(2), 339-361 Teaching practice is doing nothing to serve the purpose and is working on adhoc basis. Those schools in which teaching practice is being conducted are not taking active part in preparing the teachers for future but only tolerating this activity. The administration and teachers of the participating schools are not aware of the required information for evaluation techniques, which are to be used during teaching practice. They are not fully aware of the importance of teaching practice for student teachers and future generations. It is fact that student teachers are not ideal teachers and due to this fact practicing school teachers cannot give them full authority but at least they can trust them. Practically two behaviours are seen here in Pakistan. Firstly these uninvited guests are considered inferior teachers and criticized without any justification. Secondly some teachers transfer their all burden to them. In some teacher training institutions selection of lessons is kept up to the choice of student teachers and they select such lessons which are very easy and in which minimum audio visual aids are used. Research Questions 1. 2. 3. What are the issues and problems of teaching practice in Pakistan? How do the prospective teachers view the trends of teaching practice in Pakistan? How far does the Practice Teaching help the student teachers in anticipating the problems they might face in their professional lives? Research Methodology Population and Sampling The population of the study consisted of all the prospective teachers who are admitted to B. Ed programme in public sector institutions in four provinces of Pakistan. 650 prospective teachers were considered as the sample of the study. These students were selected from 26 teacher training institutions, 25 students from each institute. 345 Aijaz Ahmed Gujjar, Bushra Naoreen Saifullah SAIFI Muhammad Jamil Bajwa Research Tool Development and Data Collection Since the study was descriptive in nature, therefore, survey approach was considered appropriate to collect the data. For the purpose, a twenty seven item questionnaire was developed out of which seven had the option of â€œyesâ€ and â€œNo; while the remaining 20 items had three options as â€œMaximumâ€, â€œTo some extentâ€ and â€œNot at allâ€. Administration of Research Tool The questionnaires were administered on prospective teachers personally and responses were received. Data Analysis The data collected through questionnaire was terms of percentage and mean scores. coded and analyzed through SPSS XII in Findings Data collected through the questionnaire was analyzed in terms of percentage and mean score. The findings drawn out from the data analysis are given below. Table 1. I agree with the importance attached to practice teaching. Yes Number of Responses Percentage 87. 6% 12. 4% 569 No 81 650 Total Above table reveals that 87. 6% prospective teachers responded that they agree with the importance of teaching practice and 12. 4% responded in negative. 346 International Online Journal of Educational Sciences, 2010, 2(2), 339-361 Table 2. There is clarity of concepts before the actual process of teaching. Yes Number of Responses Percentage 487 No 163 650 74. 97% 25. 03% Total Above table reveals that 74. 7% prospective teachers reported that they have been given orientation before the start of teaching practice and 25. 03% reported in not. Table 3. The help extended by the Parent institution was quite appropriate. Yes Number of Responses Percentage 63. 54% 25. 46% 413 No 237 650 Total Above table shows 63. 54% respondents were in favour that department /institute extended help provided the criteria for the evaluation of the teaching practice and 25. 47% are not in favour. Table 4. It helps when you replicate the assessment and evaluation procedure adopted by your teachers during the theoretical sessions. Yes Number of Responses Percentage 65. 38% 34. 62% 425 No 225 650 Total 347 Aijaz Ahmed Gujjar, Bushra Naoreen Saifullah SAIFI Muhammad Jamil Bajwa Above table reveals that 69. 38% prospective teachers are in favour that they have been provided with the manual of rules and regulation regarding teaching practice and 34. 62% not reported in favour. Table 5. The school provided the necessary infrastructure and the attitude of the staff was encouraging. Yes Number of Responses Percentage 56% 44% 364 No 286 650 Total Above table reveals that 56% respondents have responded in favour that attitude of the staff was encouraging and 44% not responded in favour. Table 6. Peer co-operation develops critical thinking and polishes teaching skills. Yes Number of Responses Percentage 56. 46% 43. 54% 367 No 283 650 Total Above table shows that 56. 46% have reported that they have been provided with separate staff room in the practicing school during teaching practice and 43. 54% reported in negative. Table 7. The school staff often visits the classrooms and gives informative tips. Yes Number of Responses Percentage 54. 6% 45. 24% 348 No 294 Total 356 650 International Online Journal of Educational Sciences, 2010, 2(2), 339-361 Above table reveals that 54. 76% respondents are affirmative that the staff of practicing school is cooperative and 45. 24% are not affirmative. Table 8. Appropriate information in orientation about teaching practice. Maximum Number of Responses Percentage 36. 92% 20. 76% 42. 30% 240 To Some Extent 135 Not at All 275 650 1. 94 Total Mean Above table reveals that 36. 92%respondents responded for maximum, 20. 76% for to some extent and 42. 30% for not at all and mean score is 1. 4, which shows that appropriate information about teaching practice are mostly not given in orientation. Table 9. The school administration paid due consideration to my preferences while allocating the classes. Maximum Number of Responses Percentage 48% 10. 30% 41. 69% 312 To Some Extent 67 Not at All 271 650 2. 06 Total Mean Above table reveals that 48% prospective teachers opted for maximum, 10. 30% for to some extent and 41. 69% for not at all and mean score is 2. 06, which supports that choice of prospective teachers are mostly not considered for assigning the lesson. Table 10. From the attitude of the school administration, I got a fair experience of how to organize a school. Maximum To Some Extent Not at All Total Mean Number of Responses Percentage 30. 15% 11. 07% 58. 76% 349 196 72 382 650 1. 71 Aijaz Ahmed Gujjar, Bushra Naoreen Saifullah SAIFI Muhammad Jamil Bajwa Above table reveals that 30. 15% respondents are in favour of maximum, 11. 07% in favour of to some extent and 58. 76% are in favour of not at all, the mean score is 1. 71 which supports that attitude of school administration do not provide a fair experience about the organization of school. Table11. There is a sufficient availability of Audio-Visual Aids. Maximum Number of Responses Percentage 11. 05% 21. 56% 67. 38% 72 To Some Extent 140 Not at All 438 650 1. 44 Total Mean Above table shows that 11. 05% respondents opted for maximum, 21. 56% for to some extent and 67. 38% for not at all, the mean score is 1. 44. This shows that audio visual aids are not available in the practicing school. Table 12. The Supervisors were quite frequent in their visits to the schools. Maximum Number of Responses Percentage 50. 92% 19. 69% 29. 38% 331 To Some Extent 128 Not at All 191 650 2. 21 Total Mean Above table reveals that 60. 92% respondents opted for maximum, 19. 69% for to some extent and 29. 38 %for not at all, the mean score is2. 21 which shows that mostly each lesson plan is checked and remarks are given by the supervisors. 350 International Online Journal of Educational Sciences, 2010, 2(2), 339-361 Table13. The supervisors regularly assessed the lesson plans before the start of the classes. Maximum Number of Responses Percentage 37. 23% 39. 53% 23. 07% 242 To Some Extent 257 Not at All 150 650 2. 14 Total Mean Above table reveals that 37. 23% respondents opted for maximum, 39. 3% for to some extent and 23. 07% for not at all, the mean score is 2. 14. This shows that to some extent supervisors regularly assessed the lesson plans before the start of the classes. Table14. The supervisors visited the classes regularly. Maximum Number of Responses Percentage 26. 50% 44. 61% 28. 92% 172 To Some Extent 290 Not at All 188 650 1. 98 Total Mean Above table reveals that 26. 50% respondents opted for maximum, 44. 61% for to some extent and 28. 92% for not at all, the mean score is 1. 98. This shows that supervisor did not visit the classes regularly. Table15. The supervisors often discuss the ongoing teaching practice with the school administration. Maximum Number of Responses Percentage 41. 69% 25. 84% 32. 46% 271 To Some Extent 168 Not at All 211 650 2. 09 Total Mean 351 Aijaz Ahmed Gujjar, Bushra Naoreen Saifullah SAIFI Muhammad Jamil Bajwa Above table reveals that 41. 69% respondents favoured for maximum, 25. 84% to some extent and 32. 46% not at all. The mean score is 2. 09, which show that supervisors often discuss the ongoing teaching practice with the school administration. Table16. Teaching practice scheduled is strictly followed. Maximum Number of Responses Percentage 50% 25. 23% 24. 76% 325 To Some Extent 164 Not at All 161 650 2. 25 Total Mean Above table shows that 53. 06% respondents opted for maximum, 32. 65% to some extent and 14. 29 not at all. The mean score is 2. 39, which supports that mostly teaching practice scheduled is strictly followed. Table17. I got enough experience and knowledge of delivering the lessons and organizing the classes. Maximum Number of Responses Percentage 35. 53% 40 % 24. 46% 231 To Some Extent 260 Not at All 159 650 1. 80 Total Mean Above table shows that 38. 3% respondents are in favour of maximum, 40% to some extent and 24. 46% to not at all. The mean score is 1. 80, which proves that mostly student teachers got enough experience and knowledge of delivering the lessons and organizing the classes. 352 International Online Journal of Educational Sciences, 2010, 2(2), 339-361 Table18. There were enough chances for development of awareness as far as Teaching Skills are concerned Maximum To Some Extent Not at All Total Mean Number of Responses Percentage 64. 92% 22% 13. 07% 422 143 85 650 2. 58 Above table reveals that 64. 2% respondents opted for maximum, 22% for to some extent and 13. 07% for not at all. The mean score is 2. 58, which proves that mostly there were enough chances for development of awareness as far as teaching skills are concerned. Table19. Performance Assessment should take place during Teaching Practice. Maximum Number of Responses Percentage 35. 23% 22. 30% 42. 46% 229 To Some Extent 145 Not at All 276 650 1. 92 Total Mean The above table reveals that 35. 23% respondents are in favour of maximum, 22. 30% in favour of to some extent and 32. 46% in favour of not at all. The mean score is 1. 2, which shows that the evaluation process for teaching practice is not satisfactory. Table 20. There was a possibility of shifting the Methods from one to the other during the classes Maximum Number of Responses Percentage 22% 50% 28% 353 To Some Extent 325 Not at All 182 Total Mean 143 650 2. 05 Aijaz Ahmed Gujjar, Bushra Naoreen Saifullah SAIFI Muhammad Jamil Bajwa Above table shows that 22% respondents are in favour of maximum, 50% to some extent and 28% not at all. The mean score is 2. 05; this shows that all the teaching methods and techniques studied theoretically were applied practically to some extent. Table 21. There is a need to improve the quality of teaching practice to meet the latest challenges. Maximum Number of Responses Percentage 62. 61% 18. 15% 19. 23% 407 To Some Extent 118 Not at All 125 650 2. 43 Total Mean Above table shows that 62. 61% respondents opted for maximum, 18. 15% for to some extent and 19. 23% for not at all. The mean score is 2. 43, which shows that there is a dire need to improve the quality of teaching practice to meet the latest challenges. Table 22. There was an opportunity after the teaching practice to discuss the problems with the teachers and give suggestions Maximum Number of Responses Percentage 19. 3% 18. 15% 62. 61% 125 To Some Extent 118 Not at All 407 650 1. 56 Total Mean Above table indicates that 19. 23% respondents are in favour of maximum, 18. 15% are in favour of to some extent and 62. 61% in favour of not at all. The mean score is 1. 56, this shows that there was not an opportunity after the teaching practice to discuss the problems with the teachers and give suggestions. 354 International Online Journal of Educational Sciences, 2010, 2(2), 339-361 Table 23. Given the choice, I shall change the techniques and methods I had employed during teaching practice. Maximum Number of Responses Percentage 46. 15% 19. 23% 34. 61% 300 To Some Extent 125 Not at All 225 650 2. 11 Total Mean Above table indicates that 46. 15% respondents are in favour of maximum, 19. 23% are in favour of to some extent and 34. 61% in favour of not at all. The mean score is 2. 11, which shows that mostly students used different methods and techniques during teaching practice. Table 24. More time should be devoted to preparing teachers before teaching practice starts. Maximum Number of Responses Percentage 64. 61% 30. 76% 4. 61% 420 To Some Extent 200 Not at All 30 650 2. 0 Total Mean Above table indicates that 64. 61% respondents are in favour of maximum, 30. 76% are in favour of to some extent and 4. 61% in favour of not at all. The mean score is 2. 60, which shows that students are strongly of the view that more time should be devoted to preparing teachers before teaching practice starts. 355 Aijaz Ahmed Gujjar, Bushra Naoreen Saifullah SAIFI Muhammad Jamil Bajwa Table 25. The student teachers should be allowed to sit in each otherâ€™s classes to observe strengths and weaknesses. Maximum Number of Responses Percentage 65. 53% 24. 92% 9. 3% 426 To Some Extent 162 Not at All 62 650 2. 56 Total Mean Above table indicates that 65. 53% respondents are in favour of maximum, 24. 92% are in favour of to some extent and 9. 53% in favour of not at all. The mean score is 2. 56, which shows that students are strongly of the view that student teachers should be allowed to sit in each otherâ€™s classes to observe strengths and weaknesses. Table 26. I had the availability of all the instructional material that I needed. Maximum Number of Responses Percentage 30. 76% 11. 53% 57. 69% 200 To Some Extent 75 Not at All 375 650 1. 73 Total Mean Above table indicates that 30. 76% respondents are in favour of maximum, 11. 53% are in favour of to some extent and 57. 69% in favour of not at all. The mean score is 1. 73, which shows that students did not have the availability of all the instructional material that they needed. Table 27. Overall, I am satisfied with the quality of teaching practice as conducted in Pakistan. Maximum To Some Extent Not at All Total Mean Number of Responses Percentage 26. 92% 19. 23% 53. 84% 175 125 350 650 1. 73 356 International Online Journal of Educational Sciences, 2010, 2(2), 339-361 Above table indicates that 26. 2% respondents are in favour of maximum, 19. 23% are in favour of to some extent and 53. 84% in favour of not at all. The mean score is 1. 73, which shows that students are not satisfied with the quality of teaching practice as conducted in Pakistan. Discussion Teaching practice is a compulsory component in teacher training programme, but some respondents were denied to have it, one possible reason might be that their institution did not send them for the purpose. Government of Pakistan (2003) states that quality education requires motivated and competent teachers at all levels. Teaching practice is a segment, which provides opportunity to prospective teachers; apply theoretical knowledge practically in real situation. The importance of teaching practice is not recognized practically in the teacher training institutions of Pakistan. Government of Pakistan (1998) accepted that the existing teacher education programme as considered is not being adequately responsive to the demands for quality in the school system. Objective, manual, orientation, rules and regulation of teaching practice are neither prepared nor supplied properly. These are prepared in few institutions but not supplied to all concerned person of the teaching practice. Rashid (1999) quoted that an objective is more specific and describes definite activities. Application of all methods and techniques are very essential for quality training, developing confidence, competency and skills, which are helpful in transfer of learning and knowledge comprehensively. But in prevailing situation teaching practice is based on conventional style. There is no use of latest techniques; the departments/ institutions are also not providing A V aids and other helping material. The role of supervisors in the teaching practice is very rare. The supervisors do not provide proper guidance. Supervisors are seen over loaded and sufficient facilities and incentives are also not being provided by the departments/institutions. Issani and Virk (2004) describe that due to lack of adequate training facilities for university teachers the present position of teacher with proper professional competencies and training is alarming low. 357 Aijaz Ahmed Gujjar, Bushra Naoreen Saifullah SAIFI Muhammad Jamil Bajwa Evaluation and assessment criteria is also very formal like satisfactory, unsatisfactory, good, very good or marks % etc. during evaluation all the aspects of teaching skills are not being considered. The segment of teaching practice in teacher training institution is not considered seriously. Modern techniques are neither supplied nor applied. Rafaquat (2002) quoted that mostly the teacher training institution are following lecture methods. It is recommended to adopt modern and better teaching training methodology like demonstration, discovery or participation methods to attain qualitative improvement. The duration of teacher training should be lengthened to develop favourable attitudes of prospective teachers towards teaching profession. It is need of the new trends of education to improve the quality of teaching practice. New inventions demand that teachers must be well trained, having latest knowledge and be able to apply the new approaches with latest technology. Quality of education and implementation of all policies and plans are depended upon the motivated and quality based teachers. Duration of teaching practice is short. It is not up to the international standard. Farooq (1990) who has pointed out short duration of teacher training programme as compared with the developed countries. Rafaquat (2002) who reported that the duration of teaching practice of teaching may be increased according to the programme of training. The quality of teaching practice may be improved by providing adequate human: physical resources and special consideration must be given to the practical components of teacher training programme for producing quality teachers. Conclusions Teaching practice is an activity, which can play an important role in preparing teachers for future challenges in a classroom. Its effectiveness for the nation is beyond any doubt. It is a milestone for professional adolescence. It is a fuel for an endless journey and a combination of personality, professional skills, knowledge and training. Now it is the duty/responsibility of teacher educators and teachers of practicing schools to make this fuel endless. Brief conclusions on the basis of the findings are as follows. Most of the respondents agreed that manual of rules and regulations of teaching practice were not provided to the 358 International Online Journal of Educational Sciences, 2010, 2(2), 339-361 rospective teachers before going to practicing schools. The supervisors neither indicated shortcomings in the lesson plan nor did they assess practically each lesson of the prospective teachers on daily basis. Objectives of teaching practice were not prepared properly and supplied to all the concerned in writing. Before commencing the teaching practice, orientation was not given to prospective teachers and the concerned staff, where they could be able to share the ambiguities regarding procedure, manual and evaluation process. Time table/schedule of the teaching practice was strictly followed by the departments/institutions but evaluation and supervision criteria were not up to the mark. The interest and choices of the prospective teachers were not considered while assigning the period and timetable during the teaching practice. Feedback from the participating school, administration, supervisors and prospective teachers was not taken so the practice could not play an effective role to develop confidence, vision and competency in the prospective teachers. Recommendations Rules and regulations of teaching practice should be defined by the institutions before the student teachers go for teaching practice. It will not only help the student teachers but also the supervisors to achieve the predefined targets. Specific teachers should be appointed by the concerning departments to observe teaching of student teachers so that they may stay whole day in school to check the activities of the students and comment honestly. Orientations should be given to the student teachers before teaching practice so prepare them mentally for the challenges coming in their way during teaching practice. Teaching practice should be given proper weight age. Students should be informed before hand the process of evaluation of teaching practice so that the teacher students may try their best to improve their performance consciously. It seems that student teachers are not satisfied with their time table and periods during their teaching practice. Institutions should properly contact schools before starting teaching practice and set their time table according to studentsâ€™ choice other wise students should be prepared accordingly. It would be a good practice if institutions develop permanent sort of links with some specific schools to adjust their students instead of selecting schools haphazardly to improve this 359 Aijaz Ahmed Gujjar, Bushra Naoreen Saifullah SAIFI Muhammad Jamil Bajwa practice and to make it more effective. School administration can be cooperative if it finds some kind of incentive in it for their school otherwise it might think that student teachers are there only to disturb the school. Feedback from student teachers regarding the problems faced by them in schools should be considered important to improve the practice for next time. Institutions should try to fill the gap between theory and practice because some times the situation in schools is different to that taught to the students in theory so to save the student teachers from any sort of bewilderment. References Akbar, R. A. (2002). A study of Teaching practice of Prospective Secondary School Teachers and Development of a Teaching practice Model, Arid Agricultural University, Rawalpindi (Unpublished PhD Thesis). Ali Murtaza, (2005). Comparative Study of Practice Teaching in Formal and Non formal Systems and Development of a Model, Arid Agricultural University, Rawalpindi (Unpublished PhD Thesis). Brwn, P. D. Brown N. R. (1990). Effective Teaching Practice. Stanley Thornes, England Cohen, A. Carver, N. (1970). A Studentsâ€™ Guide to Teaching Practice. University of London Press, London. Cohen, L. Manion, L. (1983). A Guide to Teaching Practice. Methuen, London. Government of Pakistan (1998). National Education Policy 1998-2010, Ministry of Education, Islamabad. Government of Pakistan (2003). Islamabad. Furlong, V. J. ; P. U. Hirst and K. Pocklington. (1988). Initial Teacher Training and The Role of the School. Open University Press, Philadelphia. Education for all 2001-2015, Ministry of Education, 360 International Online Journal of Educational Sciences, 2010, 2(2), 339-361 Govt. of Pakistan. (1997). Pakistan Vision 2010. Report; Seminar on Education. Planning and Development Division, Islamabad. Issani, C, U. A. G M, L, Virk (2004). Higher Education in Pakistan: A Historical and Futuristic Perspective, National Book Foundation, Islamabad. Malik, S. R. (1992). The System of education in Pakistan. National Book Foundation, Lahore. Muhammad Ashraf (1990). Dictionary of Primary Education. A. P. H. Publishing Corporation, New Delhi. R, A, Farooq (1994). Education System in Pakistan: Issues and Problems, Asia Society for Promotion of Innovation and Reforms in Education, Islamabad. Rashid, M (1999). Teaching Strategies, Allama Iqbal Open University, Islamabad. Shah, R. A. (1995). Education and Teacher education in Pakistan. Pakistan study Centre, University of Sindh, Jamshoro. Taneja, R. P. (2000). 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